Integrated and Unified Data Model for Publication and Sharing of prolonged pandemic data as FAIR Semantic Data: COVID-19 as a case study

Project Description

The main purpose of this study is to transform data into knowledge. In the context of the current pandemic, an immense amount of data, for instance on global pandemic cases, patient information including the travel, treatment, available and required infrastructural resources, treatment facilities, etc. are available on the Web in various formats (e.g., spreadsheet, HTML). The data is the fuel that is necessary to perform any kind of research, and for any decision and policymaking purposes. Our initial analysis reveals that the available datasets are inconsistent and lack meaningful representation, which hinders their effective use by both humans and machines. The data becomes hard to interchange, integrate, reuse, process and interpret automatically by machines, which eventually prevents the derivation of insights from the data and doing analytics. We aim to investigate in depth the existing issues related to data description, interoperability, data representation, and so forth with the ultimate goal of transforming data into useful knowledge.

Funding Information: This project is funded by Indian Statistical Institute (ISI) (36 months)



  • Dutta, B. and DeBellis, M. (2020). CODO:an ontology for collection and analysis of COVID-19 data. In Proc. of 12th Int. Conf. on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (KEOD), Lisbon, Portugal, 2-4 November 2020, vol.2, pp. 76-85 (DOI:
  • DeBellis, M. and Dutta, B. (2021). Developing the Covid-19 CODO Knowledge Graph: An Agile Approach From Ontology to Knowledge Graph. In: Villazón-Terrazas B., Ortiz-Rodríguez F., Tiwari S., Goyal A., Jabbar M. (eds) Knowledge Graphs and Semantic Web. KGSWC 2021. Communications in Computer and Information Science (CCIS), Springer, Cham, vol. 1459, pp. 153-168. (DOI:
  • Asiyah Lin, Yuki Yamagata, William D. Duncan, Leigh Carmody, Tatsuya Kushida, Hiroshi Masuya, John Beverley, Biswanath Dutta, Michael DeBellis, Zoë May Pendlington, Paola Roncaglia and Yongqun He (2021). A community effort for COVID-19 Ontology Harmonization. In Proc. of Int. Conf. on Biomedical Ontologies 2021 (ICBO-2021), co-located with the Workshop on Ontologies for the Behavioural and Social Sciences (OntoBess 2021). Bolzano (Italy), September 16-18, 2021, pp. 122-127 (available from
  • DeBellis, M. and Dutta, B. (2022). The Role of Semantic Data Science in the Covid-19 Pandemic. In A. Patel, N. C. Debnath, and B. Bhushan (eds.) Data Science with Semantic Technologies: Theory, Practice, and Application. Scrivener Publishing LLC, pp. 393–426.
  • Dutta, Biswanath, Das, Puranjani, and Mitra, Sushmita (2022). A survey and classification of publicly available COVID-19 datasets. Annals of Library and Information Studies, 69(3), 208-220. (DOI:
  • DeBellis, M. and Dutta, B. (2022). From Ontology to Knowledge Graph with Agile Methods: The Case of COVID-19 CODO Knowledge Graph. International Journal of Web Information Systems, 18(5/6), 432-452. (DOI:
  • Dutta, B. and Das, Puranjani (2023). SAGE: A Semantic Annotator for knowledge Graph Exploration. In ASIS&T Mid-Year Conference “Expanding Horizons of Information Science and Technology and Beyond” (virtual, April 11-13, 2023) (DOI:
  • Dutta, Biswanath. and Das, Puranjani. (2023). Semantic Annotator for Knowledge Graph Exploration: Pattern-Based NLP Technique. Journal of Information and Knowledge (Formerly SRELS Journal of Information Management), 60(1), 49-62. (DOI: (Preprint)
  • Outreach/ Invited talks

  • Delivered an Invited Talk on "CODO: an integrated framework for collection and analysis of COVID-19 data" at IIIT Delhi, Delhi (April 20, 2022).
  • Delivered an Invited Talk on "CODO: an ontology for collection and analysis of multiparadigm COVID-19 data" at the Ontology Summit 2022 session on Knowledge Graph Approach to Combat COVID-19 (March 9, 2022).
  • Delivered an invited talk on "Knowledge graph for combating COVID-19, the case of CODO initiative" at the Winter School 2021, organized by 2nd Indo-US Knowledge Graph and Semantic Web Conference (KGSWC-2021, 15-18 November 2021) on 15 November 2021.
  • Delivered a lecture on "CODO Knowledge graph for combating the pandemic COVID-19" at AICTE ATAL-sponsored FDP Workshop "Semantic Intelligence: The Way Forward with Artificial Intelligence," National Institute of Technology (NIT) Kurukshetra (1 - 5 July 2021) on July 2, 2021.
  • Delivered a talk on "CODO: an ontology for collection and analysis of COVID-19 data" at the 12th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Ontology Development (KEOD 2020) on 4th November 2020 (KEOD 2020, 2-4 November 2020, Lisboa, Portugal (Virtual Conf. collocated with 13th IC3K 2020)).
  • Delivered an Invited talk on "CODO: an Ontology to Capture Data on the COVID Pandemic" at the Workshop on COVID-19 Ontologies 2020 (WCO 2020), Ann Arbor, MI, United States, October 23, 2020.
  • Delivered an Invited talk on "Knowledge Graph: a weapon to fight against the pandemic COVID-19" organized by the Department of Information Engineering and Computer Science (DISI), University of Trento, Italy on 23 September 2020.
  • Delivered a Webinar on "Knowledge Graph and the current pandemic COVID-19," organized by University Visvesvaraya College of Engineering (UVCE) of Bangalore University, Bangalore on 27th August 2020.
  • Software, code

    1. Github: : Link to Github

    2. Bioportal: : Link to Bioportal

    3. CODO Ontology Documentation: : Link to CODO Documentation

    Datasets, Knowledge Graphs

    To access/ download the generated COVID-19 knowledge graphs, please contact Biswanath Dutta at or or or


        Dr. Biswanath Dutta

        Dr. Biswanath Dutta
        Principal Investigator

        Prof. Sushmita Mitra

        Prof. Sushmita Mitra
        Co Principal Investigator

        Michael DeBellis

        Michael DeBellis
        Co Principal Investigator

        Puranjani Das

        Puranjani Das
        Research Assistant