Course Archives Documentation Research and Training Centre Unit
Course: Geographic Information System
Level: Postgraduate
Time: Currently not offered
Past Exams

Module 1: Historical view of maps
Unit 01: Various maps (e.g. geographical and mathematical); Deterministic and non deterministic models and/or maps; certain coordinate systems;
Unit 02-03: What spatial maps contain (points; lines; objects); spatial and temporal scales; Basics of spatial data acquisition, Information retrieval and analysis, reasoning and modeling; Google maps
Unit 04-05: Transformation involved in space -time modeling; Digital geographics, frameworks, theories to formalize use and development of geographical information systems and services.
Module 2: Spatial data and spatial map
Unit 06: Continuous data, discrete data episodic data; popular data formats; Collection and acquisition of spatial data; collection standards, Conflation and digitization; geocoding positional accuracy, consistency, and data quality; Data Sources, Data Models and Data Structures, Algorithms, DBMS, Creation of Databases (spatial and non-spatial), Spatial analysis- Interpolation, Buffer, Overlay, Terrain Modeling and Network analysis.
Unit 07: Spatial data structures and databases; Raster vs vector; storage, access methods, and indexing;
Unit 08: Sources of geographical images: Aerial imaging and photogrammetry- Types of photo-graphs, Flying height and scale, Relief (height) displacement, Stereoscopy, 3-D Model, Height determination using Parallax Bar, Digital Elevation Model (DEM), Slope; remote sensing- Basic concept, Electromagnetic spectrum, Spectral signature, Resolutions-Spectral. Spatial, Temporal and Radiometric, Platforms and Sensors, Remote Sensing Data Products- Pan, Mul- tispectral, Microwave, Thermal, Hyperspectral, Visual interpretation method; GNSS– Principle used, Components of GNSS, Data collection methods, DGPS, Errors in observations and corrections.
Unit 09: Representation of other data (e.g., census data, business data, digital elevation models, health geographic data) in to spatial formats;
Unit 10: Spatial data representation and visualization; Information zonation, zone prioritization, spatial spread
Unit 11: basics of digital image processing and analysis: Sampling and quantization, Principle of Linear System, Convolution, Continuous and Discrete Fourier Transform, Principle of Maxima and Minima, Principle of Electromagnetic Waves, Maxwell’s Equations, Antennas, Digital image characteristics, Image histogram, Image enhancement, Smoothing and Gradient Operators, and Basic digital image classification techniques.
Module 3: Analytics and retrieval techniques:
Unit 12: Geocoding; Representation of the data into maps; spatial data mining; geoprocessing environment
Unit 13: Classifying satellite images; classifying ancient maps for better preser- vation; map registration; map integration; classification schemes; Unit 14: Data mining and pattern discovery; image processing and recogni- tion/computer vision techniques; computational geometry,
Unit 15-16: Computer based segmentation, feature decomposition into zones; information retrieval, location allocation, network analysis, similarity search and approximity matching; statistical and geostatistical analysis
Module 4: Modeling:
Unit 17: Commonly sharing physical mechanism- basic measures, universal scaling laws, self organized critically exhibited by universal power laws; map algebra via mathematical morphology;
Unit 18: Relationship, topology, basic mathematical morphology operations, mathematical morphology to deal with global structural information, express- ing spatial relationship in terms of morphological operations;
Unit 19: Algebraic structure of mathematical morphology; equivalence in set theoretical terms; directional mathematical morphology and reformalized hough transformation for the analysis of topographic maps; map matching method; eu- clidean and non euclidean metrics;
Unit 20: Minkowski distance, Hausdorff Distances;
Unit 21: similarity search; spatiotemporal data and information visualization and modeling;
Unit 22-24: Spatial interpolations via recursive generation of median element; Spatial extrapolations,
Unit 25-26: Spatial autocorrelation vs spatial dependency; Coupled spatial models; spatial and/or temporal information complexity;
Unit 27: How to construct an attractor explaining the spatial and/or tempo- ral behavior of a phenomenon? New insights from spatial information science explaining the spatio-temporal behavior
Module 5: GIS Tools and Platforms
Unit 28: Information sources; GIS Software (e.g., ArcInfo, IDRISI, Geoda, SQL for spatial data min ing); Cartograms, Cartogram-based Spatio-Temporal Modelling
Unit 29: Mathematical Morphology in Geographical Information Science
Unit 30-31: Case studies- Cartography, Earth Sciences, Astronomy, Emergency and Crisis management, Environmental Monitoring, Impact Assessment, Medical Imagery and Atlases, Public Safety and homeland Security, Traffic and Transportation, Urban Planning and Management
Unit 32-34: Project Work

Reference Texts:
1. Bolstad, Paul (2000). GIS Fundamentals: A First Text on Geographic Information Systems, Fifth Edition. Michigan: XanEdu Publishing Inc.
2. Zhu, Xuan (2016). GIS for Environmental Applications: A Practical Approach. New York : Routledge
3. Price, Maribeth (2013). Mastering ArcGIS., Seventh Edition. McGraw Hill.
4. Shellito, Bradley A. (2016) Discovering GIS and ArcGis. W. H. Freeman
5. Sutton, Tim and Sutton, Marcel. (2013) The Quantum GIS training manual: A Comprehensive Introduction to Quantum GIS. Locate Press
6. Harvey, Francis. (2008) A Primer of GIS Second Edition. New York : Guilford Press
7. Brewer, Cynthia. (2005) Designing better maps: a guide for GIS users. ESRI Press
8. Daly, C. ,Neilson, Ronald P. and Phillips, Donald L. (1993). A Statistical-Topological Model for Mapping Climatological Precipitation over Mountainous Terrain. Journal Applied Meteorology. Volume 33.
9. McBratney, A.B., Mendonca-Santor, M.L., Minasny, B. (2003) On Digital Soil Mapping. Geoderma. 10. ESRI GIS Bibliography.
11. ESRI GIS Dictionary of all the GIS related terms.

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Past Exams
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[Indian Statistical Institute]